This book presents selected peer-reviewed contributions from the 2020 International Conference on “Physics and Mechanics of New Materials and Their Applications”, PHENMA 2020 (26–29 March 2021, Kitakyushu, Japan), focusing on processing techniques, physics, mechanics, and applications of advanced materials. The book describes a broad spectrum of promising nanostructures, crystal structures, materials, and composites with unique properties. It presents nanotechnological design approaches, environmental-friendly processing techniques, and physicochemical as well as mechanical studies of advanced materials. The selected contributions describe recent progress in computational materials science methods and algorithms (in particular, finite-element and finite-difference modelling) applied to various technological, mechanical, and physical problems. The presented results are important for ongoing efforts concerning the theory, modelling, and testing of advanced materials. Other results are devoted to promising devices with higher accuracy, increased longevity, and greater potential to work effectively under critical temperatures, high pressure, and in aggressive environments.